World War I and All Souls College







[Remember within these walls the sons and servants of this College who met their deaths when fighting for their Country, 1914-18]

The College lost six fellows, three servants, and three bible clerks.

Gerald Rupert Laurie ANDERSON

Examination Fellow 1913 (not attested) (Trinity College).

First Class, Moderations, 1910.

First Class, Literae Humaniores, 1912.

Cheshire Regiment, Second Lieutenant/later Captain.

Died: 9th November 1914, near Hooge, aged 25.

Memorial: Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial.

 Alan Edward Grey HULTON

Examination Fellow 1908  (New College).

First Class, Moderations, 1906.

First Class, Literae Humaniores, 1908.

Gladstone Prize, 1905.

Army Service Corps, Lieutenant.

Died: 6th June 1915 of wounds received at St.Jean, near Ypres, on 25th April 1915, aged 29.

Memorial: Bristol (Canford) Cemetery.

John Douglas Henderson RADCLIFFE

Examination Fellow, 1910 (Balliol College).

First Class, Classical Moderations, 1906.

Second Class, Literae Humaniores, 1908.

King’s Royal Rifle Corps, Captain.

Died: 30th July 1915 of wounds received in action, near Hooge, aged 30.

Memorial: Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial.

Sir Foster Hugh Egerton CUNLIFFE

Examination Fellow, 1898 (New College).

Third Class, Moderations, 1896.

Second Class, History, 1898.

Rifle Brigade, Major.

Died: 10th July 1916, Battle of the Somme.

Memorial: Bapaume Post Military Cemetery, Albert.


Examination Fellow, 1902 (Balliol College).

First Class, Moderations, 1899.

First Class, Literae Humaniores, 1901.

First Class, Law, 1902.

Craven (1898) and Ireland Scholar (1900).

Prox. Hertford, 1898.

Grenadier Guards, Lieutenant.

Died: 15th September 1916, Battle of the Somme.

Memorial: Guillemont Road Cemetery, Guillemont.

Patrick Houston SHAW STEWART

Examination Fellow, 1910 (Balliol College).

First Class, Moderations, 1908.

First Class, Literae Humaniores, 1910.

Ireland Scholar (1907) and Hertford Scholarship (1908).

Royal Naval Volunteer Research, Lieutenant Commander.

Croix de Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur.

Croix de Guerre.

Died: 30th December 1917, killed in action.

Memorial: Metz-en-Couture Communal Cemetery.

John Euel Witherden BATH

Bible Clerk.

Matric. 1912.

Royal Berkshire Regiment, Captain.

Died: 22nd December 1915, in action, aged 22.

Memorial: Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner, Cuinchy.

Aubrey Charles NEALE

Bible Clerk.


Cameronian (Scottish Rifles), Second Lieutenant.

Died: 1st August 1917, in action, at Ypres, aged 23.

Memorial: Brandhoek New Military Cemetery.

Francis Hugh Tilney STONEX

Bible Clerk.

Matric. 1911.

Royal Dublin Fusiliers, Lieutenant.

Died: 1st February 1918, of illness contracted on active service, aged 25.

Memorial: Wallasey (Rake Lane) Cemetery.



Oxford & Bucks Light Infantry, Private.

Died: 28th April 1917, aged 22.

Memorial: TiepvaL Memorial.


ASC Messenger.

Oxford & Bucks Light Infantry, Private.

Died: 22nd August 1917, aged 22.

Memorial: Tyne Cot Memorial.

Horace Samuel SCRAGG

Servant (1911 Census), at ASC c.1904-1913

Royal Medical Corps, 41st Field Ambulance.

Posthumously awarded the Military Medal.

Missing, believed killed: 9th October 1917, in Belgium, aged 28.

Memorial: St.Matthew’s Church, Grandpont, Oxford & Tyne Cot Memorial.





[Greater love hath no man than this: that he lay down his life for his friends.]


Beating the Bounds

The beating of the bounds is a tradition which dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, and was the means by which parish boundaries were marked, and remembered. On Ascension Day the Vicar and parishioners of St Mary the Virgin, the University Church, walk the parish boundary, “marking” it at various points. Over the centuries, the parish boundaries have changed little (save where a parish church no longer exists, and lands have been designated to neighbouring churches); but the built landscape has changed.

ASC_1The first mark on All Souls is on the corner by Hertford College, where ghosts of previous chalk marks can be seen beneath this years’.

The north eastern part of the parish boundary used to enclose the parish orchard which lay to the north of the land owned by All Souls College; when the college acquired this land to allow its expansion in the eighteenth century, the Codrington Library was built on the site of the orchard.

Since the building of the Library, and on the east side of the quadrangle the fellows’ common room and studies, the parishioners’ route around the bounds is now most nearly followed inside some of these buildings.

The outer walls of the Codrington Library follow the line of the parish boundary so the “mark” is now made on one of the black marble floor stones in the middle of the library.

SMV_XVThe cross incorporates the letters S.M.V. (St Mary the Virgin) and the year.

The “beating” is done using twelve long canes, wielded by the choristers, who shout “MARK” at each of the twelve blows to the mark.

From the Library the company next moves out into the quadrangle, to a point similarly marked in front of the Common Room, at the foot of Hawksmoor’s twin towers, and here a hymn is sung by the choir and parishioners (although this year the hymn was sung in the dry of the library!). In the past (though still in living memory) pennies were thrown down from the rooms above for the choirboys to claim (surely an early incarnation of Health and Safety stopped this custom).  After the hymn cherry cake is served in the Hall, a reminder of the cherry trees that once grew in the parish orchard. Finally the company moves to the Warden’s driveway for another “marking” before emerging from the College onto High Street, and from thence they cross to University College to continue their progress around the parish boundary.

The printed achievement of Aldus Manutius

This symposium was convened by Ian Maclean (All Souls College, Oxford) and Oren Margolis (Somerville College, Oxford) on 7th February 2015, and comprised 5 presentations summarized here:

Aldine Greek Incunabula and early collections in Oxford College

Aldus_1Geri Della Rocca de Candal (Lincoln College)

This paper, a case study based on the Material Evidence in Incunabula database (MEI), part of the 15c BOOKTRADE project, explores the provenance of Aldine Greek incunabula currently held in Oxford college libraries. Thanks to his reputation as an editor and to his highly effective entrepreneurial spirit, both decisive in creating a demand and a market for his books, Aldus’s Greek editions were much sought after by humanists and scholars throughout Europe already at a very early stage.  The paper shows how, in contrast to the Greek editions of his predecessors, a remarkable number of Aldus’s Greek incunabula already reached Northern Europe and England long before the European secularisation of monastic collections of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and consequent formation of modern private collections. In addition to this, it attempts an outline of reading and collecting practices in relation to the different types of Greek works published by Manutius (e.g. devotional texts, philosophy, science, literature). Finally, the paper looks at the colleges’ different pattern of acquisition during the course of the centuries.

Decoding the woodcuts of the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of 1499: Colonna ΓΕΛΟΙΑΣΤΟΣ

Aldus_2Richard Cooper (Brasenose College, Oxford)

This paper has two objectives: 1) to explore the broad significance of the Aldine Dante (1502), with its text edited by the Venetian humanist Pietro Bembo, in the context of other printed editions of the Comedy before and after 1502; and 2) to consider the particular range of interests displayed by one of the text’s owners and readers, in the marginal notes by Giovanni Brevio on the Bodleian copy of the 1502 edition.

The significance of the Aldine Dante of 1502

Martin McLaughlin (Magdalen College, Oxford)Aldus_3

 This paper has two objectives: 1) to explore the broad significance of the Aldine Dante (1502), with its text edited by the Venetian humanist Pietro Bembo, in the context of other printed editions of the Comedy before and after 1502; and 2) to consider the particular range of interests displayed by one of the text’s owners and readers, in the marginal notes by Giovanni Brevio on the Bodleian copy of the 1502 edition.

The Pliny of 1508: An Aldine Miscellany?

Aldus_4Justin Stover (All Souls College)

What was the contribution of Aldus Manutius to Latin scholarship? Aldus’ importance to Latin scholarship, however, is often related as little more than footnote in the history of classical scholarship, and such a footnote could only point to one book he printed, the 1508 edition of Pliny’s letters.  Remarkably, however, this single book makes two separate contributions to Latin scholarship: the first complete edition of Pliny’s letters, and Aldus’ only Latin editio princeps, the Liber de prodigiis of the otherwise unknown Julius Obsequens.  In this paper, I present two different ways of understanding the composition of this volume, both of which in turn shed light on Aldus’ own participation in the broader scholarly world of the early sixteenth century.

The Merchant of Venice: Aldus Manutius, some publisher colleagues and

the commerce of books

Ian Maclean (All Souls College)Aldus_5

Scholars do not engage in commerce: as the saying has it, ‘knowledge is a gift of God, and cannot therefore be put on sale.’  Merchants on the other hand are in the business of profit-making; some would say that this creates in them a ‘mercatoria prudentia’ that translates everything into commercial and amoral terms. What happens if you are both a scholar and a merchant, as in the case of Aldus Manutius and his colleague Josse Bade [Jodocus Badius]?  Does your devotion to the world of learning trump your commercial sense?  Or do you combine both elements of your avocation? This paper looks at the legal and cultural aspects of this dilemma around 1500.

The Codrington Orders

Nov. 8, 1751

If the Codrington Library has a birthday, then it is surely the day on which, in 1751, the Codrington Orders were signed. They were drawn up by the Warden and Fellows, to be the regulations governing the use of the newly built Library. The Codrington came into being as the result of two occurrences: the desperate need for a larger library, and the bequest of the money and books left to the College by former Fellow, Christopher Codrington. Codrington was elected a Fellow of All Souls in 1690, and regarded as a wit, a linguist and an effective speaker, as well as a universal scholar. When he died in April, 1710, his will made public his charitable intentions: he left £6,000 to All Souls to pay for the building of a new library, with a further gift of £4,000 to be spent on books. He also bequeathed his own collection of 12,000 books. All Souls commissioned Nicholas Hawksmoor to redesign the north side of the Great Quadrangle to house a library (instead of the common room and rooms that had originally been envisaged). The Codrington Orders state that the books should be arranged in subjects, and that particular parts of the Library be allotted to each subject; that a catalogue should immediately be drawn up; and that two principal librarians should be appointed to classify all newly purchased books, and to maintain a register of donors. It is evident from the Orders that locks on each bookcase were part of the original design. Only the appointed librarians had access to the keys, and they fetched books for the Fellows. There was to be “no Fire or Candle to be carried into the Library on any Account whatsoever”. Each Fellow signed the Library Minute Book to comply with the above Orders: “We whose names are underwritten do hold ourselves strictly bound in conscience and honour not to take any Book out of the Library, but under the Restrictions and according to the Rules prescrib’d in the Codrington Orders. And we do farther promise, each one for himself respectively, that we will at all times be very carefull of any key, or keys, entrusted to us; and if any such Key, or Keys, shall happen to be lost by our neglect, we will readily submit to the Penalties enjoin’d by the said Orders.”